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Past Performances

Intelligence, security, culture and training... skills for a changing world

Cognitive Interview Technique  ARA-LOGOprint[1]

Rababy & Associates, partnered with Applied Research Associates (ARA), helped develop the Cognitive Interview Technique. The Cognitive Interview Technique (CIT) is a technique designed to enhance memory recall and help Warfighters elicit information and determine credibility and veracity. The CIT can be used in the following environments: Screening (including both primary and secondary screenings), Tactical questioning and tactical debriefing (including critical event debriefing of friendly forces, Suspect and Witness questioning, and Interrogation.

CIT is easy to learn and to use, can be modified to fit individual situations, and improves deception detection performance. We teach students how to elicit more information and recognize verbal cues to deception which improve their ability to detect deception.

Using CIT elicits more information than a standard Interview/interrogation because of its techniques that improve social dynamics and enhance memory recall. These techniques remove common barriers to communication which results in greater information gained.

Culturally Authentic Immersive Training (CAIT)

Rababy & Associates, together with Applied Research Associates (ARA), assisted in the development of a two-tier Culturally Authentic Immersive Training (CAIT) program focused on Afghanistan for the Office of the Secretary of Defense’s Human, Social, Cultural & Behavioral Modeling program. The CAIT program provided Marine Warfighters with the critical high level cognitive skills and cultural knowledge they need to successfully carry out tasks that require close interactions with members of other cultures.

CAIT focused on training small unit leaders (both officer and enlisted) in the unique cultural nuances specific to their military missions. We developed multiple realistic scenarios which small unit leaders would find themselves in. Our partner Soar Technology developed an avatar based, computerized, interactive program derived from actual cultural data we collected from warfighters with first-hand experience. The training developed helped small unit leaders understand the cultural landscape in Afghanistan making them more successful.

Collectively we developed of a small booklet entitled, “After the Third Cup of Tea” which was mass produced for Marine Corps units. This booklet was used by small unit leaders in the rapid assimilation of the Afghan culture prior to and during deployment into Afghanistan.

Extremist Ideologies 

Rababy & Associates (R&A), partnering with Applied Research Associates (ARA), conducted a study on Extremist Ideological Influences for the Office of Naval Research (ONR) by researching the methodologies used by extremist Jihadist groups around the world.

The goal of the study was to learn how Jihadists use the Internet to recruit, indoctrinate and train potential terrorists in order to develop strategic communication methods designed to counter terrorist activities through the World Wide Web. All materials collected were reviewed and analyzed (first-tier analysis) before submission to the government to be fused with other intelligence materials in classified domains.

R&A focused upon conducting archival analysis of extremist/terrorists and moderate Islamic texts on the Internet to produce qualitative differences between extreme and moderate beliefs. This was accomplished by identifying, monitoring, and translating Arabic websites on a routine basis. R&A delivered a list of Arabic texts divided into two categories: moderate Islamic sources, and Islamic extremist/terrorist sources. This allowed us to better understand the difference in a purely religious message from one aimed at recruiting terrorists.

The materials R&A collected were in Arabic, which R&A translated into English preserving nuanced meanings from the original source language. Although transliteration tools were used as part of the process, R&A’s review & revision by fluent Arabic speakers was necessary to ensure an accurate translation.

Human Intelligence Deception Detection 

Rababy & Associates partnered with Applied Research Associates (ARA) in the development and testing of a new methodology for deception detection entitled Cognitive Interview Technique (CIT). The project was developed in cooperation with the US Army HUMINT Training – Joint Center of Excellence (HT-JCOE). Our success rate in determining deception using CIT was between 65-80% overall.

As the Subject Matter Expert on interrogation, R&A provided examples of challenging real-life scenarios, expert interview strategies, interpreter issues, and reviewed various protocols (scenario, scripts, role player parts, performance measures etc.) based on personal experience interrogating in the field.

The CIT method was developed to enhance current interrogation techniques in the tactical questioning (TQ) and tactical debriefing (TD) areas of military operations. The final deliverable provided the government with a reference guide complete with job aids and a train-the-trainer program taught to both the U.S. Army and Marine Corps operational units.

Cross Cultural Competency Model 

As a consultant to Applied Research Associates, Rababy & Associates was contracted through the Defense Language (DLO) to develop a Cross Cultural Competency (CCC) matrix for use by Warfighters in rapidly understanding a new culture in the Global War on Terrorism (GWOT). The focus of the program was on Marine Corps and Army units from a ground warfighter’s perspective. The focus of the matrix was upon small unit leaders. The DLO created an initial matrix of over 40 elements which was too unwieldy for effective cultural understanding and training. The ARA/R&A team identified small unit leaders from all four services (with the majority being both Marines and Soldiers) for interviewing to understand the most effective lessons learned related to CCC.

The objective of this effort was to reduce the matrix from 40 elements of CCC to a more usable number aimed at small unit leaders (NCOs and Company Grade Officers). The results of this effort were to be shared with all service culture centers in addition to the Defense Language Agency for future incorporation of culture training.

Cultural Impacts upon Jihadist Terrorists 

Rababy & Associates supported the U.S. Marine Corps University Foundation sponsored annual terrorism colloquium to discuss trends within terrorist organizations and the methods they employ against the United States. Rababy & Associates provided a unique insight into the culture of Jihadi terrorists today with a focus on the impacts of culture on the ideology of our enemies and how best to combat such an ideology.

With an audience of over 100 members of the U.S. Armed services Rababy & Associates provided a thorough insight into such factors as:
– The culture of Islamic terrorism beginning with the madrasas (schools)
– The concept of equality within Islamic culture
– Islamic terrorism trends including; decentralization, increased use of the internet, focus upon economic targets, increased reliance upon “home grown” natives
– Islamic terrorism commonalities including: teachings from the Koran and direct opposition to the ideas of the west

Open Source Intelligence (OSINT) untitled

Rababy & Associates (R&A) developed the Disabled Veteran Intelligence Program (DVIP) designed to recruit, train and employ Wounded Warriors (WW) and Disabled American Veterans (DAVs) to focus on unclassified information requirements of both the federal government and Industry.  

R&A-DVIP supported the Naval Surface Warfare Center – Dahlgren (NSWC-D) in support of U.S. Pacific Command (USPACOM) during Exercise RIMPAC 2012 and Exercise Pacific Endeavor 2012. The scenario included a U.S. led coalition of 28 Asian nations conducting a Humanitarian Assistance Disaster Relief (HADR) operation on the island of Fiji. The DVIP team responded to hundreds of request for information (RFIs) from the participant nations in a timely manner (within 24 hours). They collected, analyzed and wrote daily reports which ensured the most effective use of limited resources. The reports produced were fused with classified intelligence reports ultimately used in assisting the warfighters decision making process.

Scenario Development

Rababy & Associates, had a requirement to provide a terrorism subject matter expert to role play a “red-team” scenario on the acquisition and transportation of a nuclear device into the continental United States (CONUS.)   Rababy & Associates provided support role playing an Islamic terrorist role in the scenario development. Details include: an Islamic terrorist travels to the former Soviet Union to purchase a 600 lb. nuclear warhead with the purpose of detonating the device within CONUS.

Rababy & Associates provided thorough research into the most likely methods a foreigner would take to acquire a nuclear weapon in Russia, transport the device out of Russia, and the method utilized to transport to the U.S. Further research determined the most likely method of crossing the U.S. border without detection and the selection of a detonation location. Rababy & Associates provided a unique insight not only into to the Arab mindset but an Arab terrorist perspective based upon previous terrorist operations and an understanding of current security protocols in place within Europe and the U.S.

Interrogation Best Practices

In support of the High Value Interrogation Group (HIG) R&A provided a literature review by directing team to pertinent documents. Participated in focus group to determine interview questions and create simulation scenario. Reviewed and rated relevance of simulation scenario. Assisted in the creation of the simulation scenario, (a mock interrogation). Selected and recruited role-players (both Arab and American) as terrorists in the Washington DC metro area. Reviewed interview protocols and interrogator questionnaire for use on captured role-players.

Provided input on interview analysis plan while reviewing data analysis and providing interpretations from a SME perspective. Provided input to the Operational Guide design and content conducting an Operational Guide review.

Futures Studies and Analysis  Allied-Command-Transformation-ACT[1]

Rababy & Associates, supported a NATO client in providing a futures studies and analysis of a major metropolitan European city in the year 2035. The study was conducted with subject matter experts from all over Europe and North America in the development of the most thorough and complete study possible of every facet of life. From demographics, to weather, to politics, to technology, no item was left un-researched.

Once the study was completed, three exercise vignettes were developed to assist NATO staffs in determining shortfalls in personnel and equipment in the future. The vignettes exercised included; Humanitarian Assistance & Disaster Relief efforts, mass migration within the city and finally urban unrest. The staffs were restricted to using the 2015 organization of NATO on the future threats.